Koi-Koi

Note: I tend to get obsessed with things. Currently, it is Japanese Hanafuda (Flower Cards) and the related game of Koi-Koi. The plus side of obsessing is that I do a deep-dive into whatever the current object of obsession is so that you don’t have to! There is widespread discrepancy in printed material and on websites about the exact rules and scoring methods of Koi-Koi, and I have here endeavored to bring together the most common and authoritative information I could find in my 13+ hours of research thus far. This is always open to future editing and improvement, but I think this is a comprehensive conglomeration of information on playing Koi-Koi!

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KOI-KOI

OVERVIEW

Koi-Koi is a competitive, trick-taking Japanese card game using a traditional 48-card Hanafuda deck. Variants of this game are played in Korea (Go-Stop) and Hawaii (Sakura or Higo-Bana). It is originally meant for 2 players.

BACKGROUND

48-card Hombre decks were introduced to Japan by the Portuguese in the 1500s. During the isolationist Edo period, foreign playing cards were banned, ultimately paving the way for the indigenous Hanafuda to be developed. The Nintendo company was founded in 1889 for the purpose of producing and selling hand-crafted Hanafuda decks.

HANAFUDA

Hanafuda literally means “flower cards.” In the deck there are twelve suits representing the twelve months. Each is designated by a Japanese flower, and each suit has four cards. 12 suits x 4 cards = 48 cards.

January           – Matsu (, pine)

February         – Ume (, plum blossom)

March              – Sakura (, cherry blossom)

April                 – Fuji (, wisteria)

May                 – Ayame (菖蒲, iris)

June                – Botan (牡丹, peony)

July                  – Hagi (, bush clover)

August             – Susuki (, Susuki grass)

September      – Kiku (, chrysanthemum)

October           – Momiji (紅葉, maple)

November       – Yanagi (, willow)

December       – Kiri (, paulownia)

Each suit contains a combination of regular cards and special cards, which vary from suit to suit. Special cards are assigned different point values. However, in Koi-Koi those point values are only used for reference, not scoring. The four types of cards found in the deck are:

Brights (20 points) – referred to as “Lights” in some rule-sets

Animals (10 points) – referring to these as “Tens” may reduce confusion

Ribbons (5 points) – referred to as “Scrolls” in some rule-sets

Dregs (1 point) – also known as plains / chaff / normals / junk / trash / flowers

*Dregs appears to be the most accurate choice, as kasu describes the dregs remaining after sake production

There are also two cards that have special properties:

Bake-Fuda – Wild Card – The Sake Cup can act as either a 10-point card or a 1-point card

Optional Variant – Gaji – The 1-point Lightning card from November can be used to capture any other card

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OBJECT OF THE GAME

The goal of Koi-Koi is to earn points by making sets, or “yaku,” as fast as you can and ending the round before your opponent. A full game session is 12 rounds or “months,” and the player with the most points after 12 rounds is the winner. Each round is winner-take-all and can involve score multipliers. For a shorter game, 6 rounds can be played.

CHOOSING THE DEALER

An initial dealer, the “oya” or “parent,” is decided at the start of play. Each player will draw a card from the deck. Whoever draws a card representing an earlier calendrical month is the dealer. If both players draw the same month, the value of the card will determine the dealer (e.g., Brights trump Ribbons). If both players draw cards of the same month and same value, they will continue to draw until the oya is decided.

Being the dealer has certain advantages, including going first and breaking ties, and the winner of each round will be the oya at the start of the next round.

SETTING UP THE GAME

The dealer will shuffle the Hanafuda deck and the opponent will cut the deck. The dealer will deal a total of eight cards face-down into the opponent’s hand, eight cards face-down into their own hand, and eight cards face-up in the center of the playing area, known as the “field.” Nintendo’s rule-set recommends dealing two cards to the player, two cards to the field, then two cards to the dealer, repeating this process until the dealing is complete.

The rest of the deck is set to the side, face-down, as a draw pile. Be sure to leave some space in the play area because additional cards may be added to the field.

CHECKING THE FIELD

The first action after the deal is to scan the field to make sure the round is valid. If there are all four cards of a single month / suit showing on the field, the round is void and must be re-dealt. Likewise, if there are four pairs of cards from the same months / suits on the field (e.g., two January, two March, two May, and two September), the round is void and must be re-dealt. 

Second, if there are three out of four cards from a single month showing on the field, they must be combined into one stack and left on the field; if a player later makes a match, they capture the whole stack.

CHECKING THE HANDS

There are two conditions that result in instant scoring and end the current round. Each player must check their hands at the start of play. Note that these conditions are identical to what voids a round if found in the field after the cards are dealt.

Teshi (手四) – Hand of Four – Being dealt four cards of the same suit – automatic 6 points

Kuttsuki (くっつき) – Sticky – Being dealt four pairs of cards with matching suits – automatic 6 points

If both players draw either of these instant-win conditions, the dealer breaks the tie and the opponent gets nothing. Points are scored, the round ends, and cards are re-dealt.

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PLAYING THE GAME

Step One – Hand Matching

The dealer or “oya” goes first. They will take one card from their hand and place it face-up in the field. If that card matches another card from the same suit, the player will place their card on top of the other card, matching it. If the card does not match any card on the field, the card will remain on the field.

Step Two – Deck Matching

The player then draws the top card from the deck / draw pile and places it face-up in the field. Again, if the card matches another card from the same suit, the player will place the card on top of the other card, matching it. If the card does not match any card on the field, the card will remain in the field.

Step Three – Capturing

If there have been any matches made during steps one and two, the player will capture those matches, taking them from the field and placing them face-up to the side of the play area or in front of their hand, depending on house preference. If there have been no matches made, the two cards remain in the field.

Step Four – Checking for Matching Sets (Yaku)

At this point, the player checks to see if they have acquired a matching set, called a “yaku.” Each yaku has an assigned point value, described in the list below. If there are no matching sets, the player’s turn is ended and the opponent starts over with Step One. If there is a matching set, play moves to Step Five.

Step Five – Calling “Koi-Koi” or “Shōbu

If the player has acquired a yaku, they have the option to either call “Shōbu” (勝負) meaning “Game” to instantly score the points and end the current round, or call “Koi-Koi” (こいこい) which basically means “Come on!” in Japanese. If Koi-Koi is called, play continues, and the opponent starts with Step One.

You want to call Koi-Koi if you believe that you can obtain a better yaku, an additional yaku, or add to the value of a current yaku before your opponent makes a match and calls Game. It is a risk-reward scenario, because if you call Koi-Koi, your opponent will score double the points if they make a match and call Game before you increase your possible points. You will not be able to call Game after calling Koi-Koi until you increase your total possible points.

Likewise, if an opponent is daring and calls Koi-Koi after you have already called Koi-Koi, you will have the opportunity to win double the points if you manage to call Game before your opponent.

SCORING

When one player calls Game, the round ends and that player who called Game gets the points for whatever matching sets or yaku they have in their possession. The other player scores nothing, no matter how many points they accumulated during the round.

If both players run out of cards in their hands, the round ends and scoring begins; the player with the highest points will score and the other player gets nothing. In this case, if there is a tie the oya breaks the tie and scores the points.

If neither player has at least one yaku at the end of play, then “Oya-Gachi,” “Oya-Ken,” or Dealer’s Privilege is in effect. In this case, the dealer scores 6 points.

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YAKU SCORING CHART

Yaku Made With 20-Point Cards

Gokō (五光) – Five Brights – 10 points

Shikō (四光) – “Dry” Four Brights – 8 points

Ame-Shikō (雨四光) – Rainy Four Brights – 7 points

Sankō (三光) – “Dry” Three Brights – 6 points

Yaku Made With 10-Point Cards

Ino-shika-chō (猪鹿蝶) – Boar, Deer, Butterfly – 5 points
     1 additional point awarded for each extra ‘Animal’ card

Tane (タネ) – Seeds (Five Animals) – 1 point
     1 additional point awarded for each extra ‘Animal’ card

Yaku Made With 5-Point Cards

Akatan, Aotan no Chōfuku (赤短・青短の重複) – 3 Poetry Ribbons + 3 Blue Ribbons – 10 points
     1 additional point awarded for each extra ‘Ribbon’ card

Akatan (赤短) – 3 Poetry Ribbons – 5 points
     1 additional point awarded for each extra ‘Ribbon’ card

Aotan (青短) – 3 Blue Ribbons – 5 points
     1 additional point awarded for each extra ‘Ribbon’ card

Tanzaku (短冊) – 5 Ribbons – 1 point
     1 additional point awarded for each extra ‘Ribbon’ card

Yaku Made With 1-Point Cards

Kasu (カス) – 10 normal / junk / dregs / chaff / plain / flower cards – 1 point
     1 additional point awarded for each extra ‘Dregs’ card

The “Viewing” Yaku – (optional)

Tsukimi-zake (月見酒) – Moon Viewing (Moon + Sake Cup) – 5 points

Hanami-zake (花見酒) – Blossom Viewing (Sakura Curtain + Sake Cup) – 5 points

Optional Variant – Viewing Blossoms in the Moonlight (All 3 Viewing Cards) – 10 points

Optional Variant – Viewing Yaku can only be scored in addition to another yaku

Optional Variant – Viewing Yaku score 0 if you have the Rain Man or Lightning Card (i.e., the viewing party is ruined)

Corresponding Month Yaku – (uncommon optional variant)

Tsuki-Fuda – Obtaining all four cards of the suit corresponding to the current month of play for a full 12-round game session – 4 points

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SCORE MULTIPLIERS

If a player accumulates 7 or more points, they will score double the points. This is one incentive for calling Koi-Koi and risking it to try and earn at least 7 points.

If a player called Koi-Koi during the round, the opposing player will score double the number of points if they win the round.

These two multipliers are cumulative, meaning you can potentially quadruple your points in a round. For example, if you have 7 points and your opponent had called “Koi-Koi” before you called “Game” or play ended by both players running out of cards in their hands, you will earn 28 points!

WINNING THE GAME

At the end of 12 rounds or “months” (6 rounds for a short game), the player with the highest total score wins.

The Meaning of Life

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What is the meaning of life? Are you curious? Would you like to know? Can a single blog post solve this great philosophical and existential puzzle?!?

Well, I object to the premise of the question. An individual life can have meaning, and the things that occur to a person during the course of life can have meaning, but seeking “the” meaning to this vague and amorphous concept of “life” is doomed to non-specificity from the start. Now the purpose of human existence on this earth, or the goal of life we should seek to accomplish… those are different ideas and more answerable.

Now, the reason why God created humanity in the first place and the marching orders he originally gave the species can be and have been addressed elsewhere, but in our post-fall / pre-heaven parenthetical existence, what is the purpose of our ongoing life now? Why this multi-millennium span of human imperfection and suffering as all creation groans under sin, curse, death, and depravity? (see Romans 8:22) This life indeed, as Martin Luther put it, is a vale of tears. If it is within God’s present power and long-term plan of salvation history to right every wrong and wipe away every tear, what’s the hold up? For that matter, why not provide atonement for sin immediately after Adam and Eve initially transgressed and save us all the heartache?

The Purpose of Existence

Let me pose this question: how can free will and a perfect world exist at the same time? In our fallen state, man-made attempts at Utopia routinely end up in despotism. From a spiritual perspective, if free will exists, then a person is always free to choose something other than God’s perfect parameters for creation. Either free will cannot exist (and I hold limited free will to be a self-evident truth) or the risk of an imperfect world must always endure (which is not God’s stated intention per scripture).

The only solution I see is to create a world where free will exists, and then select all those who freely choose to do good and follow God’s design to live in a rebooted world. And more than that, these individuals use their free will to seek to have the nature of their character permanently changed by God! Christians, once awoken, yearn to be free from their corrupted sin nature and to experience the glorious transformation and relational eternity promised in scripture.

Some verses that point to this overall conceptualization:

“And he made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined their appointed times and the boundaries of their habitation, that they would seek God, if perhaps they might grope for him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us,” (Acts 17:26-27).

“For the eyes of the Lord move to and fro throughout the earth that he may strongly support those whose heart is completely his,” (2 Chronicles 16:9a).

“Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a dragnet cast into the sea, and gathering fish of every kind; and when it was filled, they drew it up on the beach; and they sat down and gathered the good fish into containers, but the bad they threw away. So it will be at the end of the age; the angels will come forth and take out the wicked from among the righteous,” (Matthew 13: 47-49).

God seems to be building a family of free-willed image bearers who freely choose enduring loyalty and believing allegiance to him.

The Goal of Life

Such a purpose to existence, although impacting our eternal destiny, might be viewed passively, as set by God and residing external to ourselves. We don’t have to do anything for the purpose to be what it is. But what is the ultimate goal for us? What do we aim at and how do we orient our lives? As Chuck Colson said, how now shall we live?

Humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow’s famed Hierarchy of Needs model posited that Self-Actualization was the highest need of man to be achieved. Although never a Christian, Maslow began to critique his own work toward the end of his career and wrote and spoke publicly about the need to add an additional stage to his model: that of Self-Transcendence. This was based on his observations of altruism and varieties of religious experience. As a Christian I would say that Self-Actualization is certainly not man’s highest achievement or goal, and Self-Transcendence, while crucial, is too religiously universal. Also, rather than Self-Transcendence being a stage only reachable after Self-Actualization, I believe the self can be transcended at every point on Maslow’s Hierarchy.

I appreciate a lot of theologian John Hick’s early work, and elements of his soul-building theodicy ring true. God is a master craftsman at work, desiring to improve the souls of all who are his. There is a sense that God is progressively sanctifying us through his Spirit, through Christian teaching, through circumstances and suffering, through pruning and discipline, etc. As much as we allow him to work in our lives and submit to his leading, we will morally progress; others may enter the eternal state with little to show from their time on Earth (1 Corinthians 3:15).

The ultimate goal of all spiritual formation efforts, as Dallas Willard argues in Renovation of the Heart and Larry Crabb does similarly in Effective Biblical Counseling, is the imitation of Christ. Achieving Christlikeness or ‘putting on the character of Christ’ is the guiding light that beckons us down the narrow path, but an accomplishment we will never fully attain this side of the eschaton. It is in heaven alone that we see “the spirits of the righteous made perfect” (Hebrews 12:23). With soul-building in mind, it is irrelevant that we cannot achieve moral perfection in this life; the love and pursuit of God’s goodness will continuously pay off as long as we are making forward progress toward the destination.

Importantly, this is not based in legalism or motivated by self-righteousness, but obedience to Christ’s call. Jesus challenges his disciples to “be perfect” (Matthew 5:48) and, in the Great Commission, sends them out to, in part, teach others to obey “everything” that he taught (Matthew 28:20). For me, the goal of life can be summed up in eight words. It is my motto, my slogan, my creed, my lodestar.

Fulfill the Law of Christ no matter what

The Law of Christ is understood by me as the ‘two greatest commandments’ discussed by Jesus in all three synoptic gospels:

“Teacher, which is the great commandment in the Law?” And he said to him, “‘You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.’ This is the great and foremost commandment. The second is like it, ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ On these two commandments depend the whole Law and the Prophets.” (Matthew 22:37-40, see also: Mark 12:29-31 and Luke 10:27).

There you have it. Two rules that fulfill the whole of what was written in 2/3 of the Old Testament, including the 613 civil, ceremonial, and moral laws observed by ethnic Israel’s ancient theocratic society. But now comes the ‘no matter what’ piece, and I can’t emphasize it enough.

If you were born in desperate poverty: fulfill the Law of Christ. If you were born wealthy: fulfill the Law of Christ. If you were born disabled or handicapped: fulfill the Law of Christ. If you were born in perfect health: fulfill the Law of Christ. If you are a high school dropout: fulfill the Law of Christ. If you have a PhD in astrophysics: fulfill the Law of Christ. If you have been cheated, mistreated, abused, imprisoned, abandoned, or persecuted: fulfill the Law of Christ. If you have participated in great criminality in your past: fulfill the Law of Christ. If you have tragically lost everything and everyone in your life: fulfill the Law of Christ.

The call to follow and imitate Jesus, fulfilling the two greatest commandments, is the great equalizer, and every living soul is without excuse or pardon from this sacred charge.